David Herlihy and Christiane Klapisch-Zuber.
Note. Corresponding variable names in the Online Tratte are shown in square brackets.
1-The City of Florence in 1427.
2-Additions of 1428.
7-Additions of 1429.
Location. [QUAR]. The Quarter and Gonfalone within the city of Florence:
Quarter of S. Spirito: 11=Scala, 12=Nicchio, 13=Ferza, 14=Drago.
Quarter of S. Croce: 21=Carro, 22=Bue, 23=Leon Nero, 24=Ruote.
Quarter of S. Maria Novella: 31=Vipera, 32=Unicorno, 33=Leon Rosso, 34=Leon Bianco.
Quarter of S. Giovanni: 41=Leon D'Oro, 42=Drago, 43=Chiavi, 44=Vaio.
Name. (Maximum of 10 letters). [NAME1 11 letters]. The first name of the head of the family. When the family had several heads, or declarers, only the first is given. A family registered under the title of "heir" is coded under the name of the oldest heir from the list of "mouths" (bocche). [See Relation_to_head variable].
Patronymic. (Max. 10 letters). [NAME2 11 letters]. The name of the father of the head of the family. For widows, the name of the deceased husband is given in preference to the name of the father.
Family_name. (Max. 10 letters). [SURNAM1 11 letters]. The name of the family (many lower-class families did not have family names).
Volume. The volume number of the entry in the archival series in the Archivio di Stato, Florence (ASF, Archivio del Catasto, Campioni).
Page. The page number (recto or verso) in the volume.
Type_of_declaration. Comment on the type of household: 0=No comment; 1=Inheritance without heirs; 2=Cancelled duplicate entry; 3=Incomplete entry; 4=Property of a rural parish or association; 5=Tax exempt.
Type_of_house. Comment on the type of dwelling: 1=Declarer owns home where he lives; 2=Rents the home where he lives; 3=Lives with a family in a house for which he does not pay the rent (in the case of parents, servants ...).
Animals. Comment on ownership of animals: 1=Owner of cattle; 2=Renter of cattle; 3=Owns and rents cattle; 4=Owns only small beasts; 5=Owns beasts of burden (and possibly small beasts).
Migration. Comment on emigration-immigration: 1=Comes from a locality of the district of Florence, or the parish where he is registered; 2=Living and residing in a locality of the district of Florence, but elsewhere than where he is obliged to the tax; 3=Comes from a non-Florentine Italian locality; 4=Comes from Germany; 5=Comes from countries other than Germany and Italy; 6=Residing in Italy outside of the district of Florence; 7=Residing in Germany; 8=Residing in a country other than Germany or Italy.
Trade. [OCSTAT]. The occupation code.
N.B. If this variable is a three-digit number,
the first digit is a "comment" (1=Employee, fattore
of an employer for whom the trade was coded in the Trade variable;
2=Widow or daughter of a man of whom the trade was coded in the Trade
variable). The second and third digits are the Trade codes that follow.
[44 per cent of households are identified with a trade.]
01-Peasant landlord, working own property.
02-Peasant leasing land (he may also own land of his own).
03-Mezzadro or share-cropper (he may also own land of his own).
04-Agricultural laborer, without lands of his own.
07-Ortolano (grocer). Treccone (sellers of fruits and vegetables).
08-Messere (cavaliere). Title used for knights, bishops, high ecclesiastics.
09-Bambaciaio (one who sells cotton to manufacturers, must be considered a wholesaler).
10-Marinaio (sailor). Calafato (caulker). Copertoaio (installs decks on ship). All those occupied with building, servicing or sailing ships.
11-Servant of private family. Fante (servant). Fattore(factor, literally, a clerk of a business office). Someone who "stays with" (sta con) someone else for a salary.
12-Servant of ecclesiastical institution. Spedaliere (administered a hospital but was not a knight). The category includes all laymen employed in the administration of ecclesiastical or charitable institutions.
13-Employee of commune. Vigilaio (fireman). Piffero(fife player employed by the commune to provide music for civic celebrations). Meziere (carried the city's standards). Corriere(messender or town crier). Messo (messenger or town crier). All non-military government servants.
14-Soldier. All military government servants. This and category 13 includes all ranks.
15-Employee of guild (includes persons employed by the guild administration).
18-Scriba (scribe). Factor in contracts. Attoredi pupilli (plaintiff or ward). Bullettaio (all persons not professionally notaries who drew up letters for persons, especially the illiterate).
19-Miscellaneous. Catch-all category for those professions not covered by the other 98.
20-Vetturale (transporter of persons or goods). Carretaio (carter). Portatore (carrier of goods). Carradore (carter). Legatore (someone who bound bundles for transport). Persons occupied with transporting goods over land.
21-Giudice (judge) e notaio (notary). Usually identified by the title, "ser," which, however, could also be used by priests. In instances when a notary is explicitly given another occupation, that other occupation is preferred. For example, a "ser" who teaches school is identified as a school teacher rather than a notary.
22-Mercatante (a great merchant, although few of the great commercial houses actually identified themselves as such). Members of the guild of Calimala (specifically concerned with sale of wool cloth).
23-Cambiatore (money changer). Banchiere. Tavoliere. Members of the guild of Cambio (change). The changing of money was a profession closely akin to banking and essential for commerce in a period when scores of cities has their own mints.
24-Lanaio (wool manufacturer or merchant). Ritagliatore (retailer of wool cloth). Pannellaio (seller of wool cloth). Drappiere (draper). Members of the Arte della Lana (wool guild).
25-Setaiolo (silk merchant, silk weaver). Members of the guild of Por S. Maria.
26-Medico e speziale (seller of spices). Saponaio (soap-maker). Dealers in spices.
27-Vaiaio (furrier dealing in "vaire," a very high-priced fur), pellicciaio (furrier). Members of the furriers' guild.
28-Beccaio (butcher). Pollaiolo (butcher in chickens). Carnaiolo (handler of meat). Members of the butchers' guild. All have to do with meat processing.
29-Calzolaio (shoemaker). Stampatore (artisan who makes holes in leather for manufacturing shoes). Members of the shoemakers' guild.
30-Fabbro ("smith," exclusively a worker in iron).
31-Rigattiere e linaiuolo (dealers in linen cloth, second-hand clothing).
32-Maestro (medical doctor). This was a title that could be used for many professions, but here was most commonly applied to medical doctors.
33-Vinattiere. Mescitoredi vino. (Wine dealers, both wholesale and retail.)
34-Albergatore. Tavernaio. Oste. (Innkeepers).
35-Oliandolo (oil merchant). Candelaio(candle-maker). Sevaiolo (dealer in tallow, commonly used in candles).
38-Corazzaio (maker of armor plating).
39-Chiavaiolo (keymaker). Toppaiolo (door-lock maker). Makers of locks and keys.
40-Legnaiolo (carpenter). Torniaio. Tavolacciaio (table maker). Cassettaio (maker of chests of drawers). Cofinaio (maker of caskets). Segatore (man who saws). Masters in the art of carpentry and makers of furniture.
43-Tintore. Curandaio (cloth bleacher). (Dyers).
45-Scardassiere (wool carder).
46-Tessitore di lana (weaver of wool). Weavers of linen and silk are under 64. When there is not explicit evidence of what type was involved, this category (46) is used.
47-Pizzicagnolo. Cacciaiuolo (literally, cheese salesman). Those who sold prepared foods. The delicatessen is the closest thing we have to the shop of a pizzicagnolo.
48-Bottaio. Barattolaio. Barlettaio. Makers of barrels and smaller containers for liquids.
49-Orafo (goldsmith). Gioielliere (jeweller). Intagliatore (engraver, sculptor). Orpellaio (maker of tinsel). Workers in gold and jewels.
50-Manovale. Urban laborer not further identified as to occupation.
51-Scodellaio (bowl-maker). Stovigliaio (earthenware dealer). Fiascaio (flask-maker). Orciolaio (potter). Bicchiere (glass-maker). Merchants and makers of dishes, glasses, jars, and so forth.
53-Purgatore (one who cleaned and washed raw wool prior to spinning).
54-Muratore (brick layer). Lastraiolo (flag-stone worker). Scarpellatore (sculptor). Workers in stone. Masons. Workers in processing and finishing stone.
55-Bastiere (pack-saddle maker). Brigliaio(bridle-maker). Sellaio (saddler). Speronaio. Bastaio (pack-saddle-maker). Guainaio. Workers producing or selling leather harnesses, reins, and sheaths.
56-Cartolaio (stationer). Cartaio (paper-maker). Paper dealers.
58-Farsettaio (doublet maker).
59-Fornaciaio (kiln maker). Stufaiolo (oven worker). Operators of furnaces for baking brick and tile. Also those who manufacture glass.
60-Riveditore (technical term for persons who finished wool cloth).
61-Pettinatore (combed raw wool). Carditore (carder). Scegliatore di lana (selector of wool). Apennichino. Those who combed, carded, and sorted wool.
62-Cimatore (shearer). "Finished" the wool cloth by raising the knap and cutting it with large shears.
63-Borsaio. Maker of purses and containers.
64-Tessitore di seta e di lino (weaver of silk and linen).
66-Pesatore. Staderaio. Bilanciaio. (Weigher, maker or seller of scales).
68-Guarnaio (maker of cloaks and dressing gowns).
69-Bandettaio. Banditore. (Town crier, auctioneer.)
71-Religious. Commesso and Commessa ("committed to a religious life").
72-Begger. Ward of the Church.
73-Cuoaio (leather seller, saddler).
74-Cappellaio (hat maker).
75-Ottonaio (brass worker). Stagnaio (tinsmith). Calderaio(coppersmith). Dealers in non-ferrous metal goods.
76-Ferratore (ironworker). Ferravecchio (dealer in old iron). Dealers in iron products.
77-Teacher of letters or abbacus. Student.
78-Conciatore di pelle. Pelacane. (Leather tanner, leather dresser).
79-Sensale (broker, middleman).
80-Stamaiolo (thread maker). Filatoiaio (spinner).
81-Pezzaio (type of leather worker).
82-Pinzochera (lady who took religious vows while remaining at her home).
83-Musician. Cimbalaio (player of cymbals, musician). Buffone (buffoon, jester).
84-Lava panni (washer of cloths).
85-Coltellaio. Forbiciaio. (Cutter, cutler).
86-Mulattiere (mule driver). Presta-ronzini. Cavallaio(horse dealer). Asinaio (ass dealer).
87-Rimendatore (sewer of wool cloth). Ricamatore (embroiderer). Refaiuolo (threader). Pattiere (sewer of wool cloth). Sewers.
88-Employee of mint. "Sta al saggio."
91-Tiratore (stretcher). He stretched the wet wool after fulling so that it would dry and would not be warped by uneven shrinking.
92-Materassaio. Coltriciaio. Pagliaiolo. (Mattress maker, bed maker).
93-Lanino (wool manufacture).
94-Spadaio (sword-maker). Balestiere (cross-bow maker). Armaiolo (armor). Forbelarme (burnishers). Schermidore (fencer). Workers in weapons.
95-Dipintore (artist-painter). Miniatore(miniature-maker). Ceraiuolo (someone who made wax votive images to be placed in church). Dealers in paintings and artistic works.
96-Biadaiolo (fodder merchant, corn dealer). Grain dealers.
97-Cordatore (rope maker). Funaiolo (bag maker). Saccaio. "Fa la stoppa."
98-Verghegiatore. Scamatino. Divettino. All these beat the raw wool in order to clean it.
99-Messer (lawyer). Title used for those having degree of "dottore di legge."
N.B. In instances where the household head is not explicitly identified by occupation in the title of the declaration, but the declaration itself makes explicit his profession, that occupation is mentioned.
Private_investment. The value of private investments—mobile property: business credits, cash, etc.--in Florins (rounded to the nearest Florin).
Public_investement. The value of investments in the public debt (Monte).
Real_estate. The value (i.e. capitalized value) of real property (personal dwelling-house exempted). (This variable was calculated in Version 1.3 of the Online Catasto from the initially coded data as [Total – (Private_investment + Public_investment)].)
Total. Total assets. The total value of private and public investments, plus the value of real property.
Deductions. The value of deductions (debts and charges) calculated in the entry. (There was an additional deduction of 200 Florins for each allowable bocca in the household, which was omitted from Herlihy’s coding because it obscured the household’s balance sheet. It can be estimated from the data available by multiplying the number of bocche by 200 [although not all of the bocche counted here were always allowable].)
Taxable. Taxable assets. The total value of the taxable fortune less the deductions. (The tax rate changed with time; however the tax was initially about 0.5 per cent of the taxable assets. But considering the extent of deductions, only about 12 per cent of households were taxed. For details on assessments see Herlihy and Klapisch-Zuber, Tuscans and their Families.)
Sex. The sex of the head of family. 1=Male; 2=Female; 0=Unknown.
Age. The age of the head of family. Ages are rounded to the younger age [18 months=01]; the ages 79 and 89 were recoded to 81 and 91. 79=Indeterminate age; 89=Infants of less than a year; 99=Persons of 99, 100 years and more.
Marital_status. The matrimonial status of the head of family. 0=Indeterminate; 1=Married; 2=Single; 3=Engaged; 4=Widowed; 5=Married or widowed; 6=Not given; 7=Separated (a married women declaring goods in her name although her husband was living); 8=Newly married or added in 1428-29.
Relation_to_head. Relation to the head of family.
A `1' in this column indicates that the declarer was the head of family.
N.B. A `0' usually indicates that the declarer or person indicated as the head of family was the oldest "heir" among the bocche listed in the entry.
Comment. Comment on the head of family. 0=No comment; 1=Anyone not recognized as a legitimate "bocca" by the officials of the Catasto (for example: religious, apprentices, servants, etc.); 2=Newborn baby added to the original declaration in 1428-29; 4=Anyone registered as outside of the district of Florence (for reasons of commerce, etc.); 5=Occupation different from that of the head of family; 6=Physically or intellectually incapable; 7=Illegitimate child; 8=Crossed out on the declaration because of marriage (women and men); 9=Crossed out because of death. [Some of these comments apply to subordinate household members who are not included in the Online Catasto.]
Bocche. The number of "mouths," that is, the total number of individuals listed in the household, including the head of the family.
Stg-ID. A household identification number added to each record. The last five digits are the identification number within each series as the numbers appear in the Sommari and Campioni of the Catasto.