1968: Glossary

affirmative action
policies, programs and procedures that give preference to minorities and women in job hiring, admission to institutions of higher education, awarding of government contracts, and other allocations of social benefits. Affirmative action was originally undertaken by President Lyndon Johnson's administration in order to improve opportunities for African Americans while civil rights legislation dismantled the legal basis for discrimination against them. The federal government began to institute affirmative action policies under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. -"affirmative action" Britannica Online.

Agent Orange
mixture of herbicides that U.S. military forces sprayed in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971 during the Vietnam War for the dual purposes of (1) defoliating forest areas that might conceal Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces and (2) destroying crops that might feed the enemy. The defoliant, sprayed from low-flying aircraft, is toxic even in minute quantities. About 50 million liters (13 million gallons) of Agent Orange--containing about 170 kg (375 pounds) of dioxin--were dropped on Vietnam. Among the Vietnamese, exposure to Agent Orange is considered to be the cause of an abnormally high incidence of miscarriages, skin diseases, cancers, birth defects, and congenital malformations (often extreme and grotesque) from the 1970s to the '90s. Many U.S., Australian, and New Zealand servicemen who suffered long exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam later developed a number of cancers and other health disorders. -"agent orange" Britannica Online.

Spiro Agnew
thirty-ninth vice president of the United States (1968-1973), elected in 1968 and 1972 on the Republican ticket headed by Richard M. Nixon. Although he was little known to the American public at the time of his nomination for the vice presidency in 1968, Agnew won national recognition soon after his election to office for his speeches attacking Vietnam War protesters and network television news coverage. In the summer of 1973 Agnew was accused of extortion, bribery, and income-tax violations relating chiefly to his tenure as governor of Maryland. On October 10, 1973, faced with federal indictments, he resigned the vice presidency. -"Agnew, Spiro T." Britannica Online.

air raid
an attack by armed airplanes on a surface target.

Muhammad Ali
American professional boxer, born Cassius Marcellus Clay, the first boxer to win the heavyweight championship three separate times. In 1964 he joined the Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)--adopting a Muslim name--and in 1967 he refused, on religious grounds, to submit to induction into the armed forces. He was subsequently convicted of violating the Selective Service Act and in consequence barred from the ring and stripped of his title, although the conviction was ultimately reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1971. -"Ali, Muhammad" Britannica Online.

Allied Powers
the alliance of France, England, and Russia formed during the Second World War and later extended to include the United States and other countries.

AP, Associated Press
the oldest and largest cooperative wire service in the United States. AP, UPI (United Press International) and other wire services sell news stories and photographs to newspapers, magazines and other news outlets worldwide.

Arab-Israeli Conflict
the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 was followed by tension and periodic outbreaks of war with the surrounding Arab countries. In early 1967 Syrian bombardments of Israeli villages had been intensified. When the Israeli Air Force shot down six Syrian MiG planes in reprisal, Egypt mobilized its forces near the Sinai border. The clash of Arab and Israeli forces from June 5-10, 1967 came to be called the Six-Day War. During this war Israel established air superiority over the Egyptian air force and occupied the Old City of Jerusalem, the Sinai and the Gaza Strip, the Jordanian territory west of the Jordan River known as the West Bank, and the Golan Heights, on the Israeli-Syrian border. -"Arab-Israeli wars" Britannica Online.

Armed Forces Network
military operated radio station that broadcasts American radio to troops overseas.

Neil Armstrong
American astronaut, the first man to set foot on the Moon. On July 16, 1969, Armstrong, along with Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins, blasted off in the Apollo 11 vehicle toward the Moon. Four days later, at 4:18 PM, U.S. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), the "Eagle" lunar landing module, guided manually by Armstrong, touched down on a plain near the southwestern edge of the Sea of Tranquillity (Mare Tranquillitatis). At 10:56 PM EDT, July 20, 1969, Armstrong stepped from the "Eagle" onto the Moon's dusty surface with the words, "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." -"Armstrong, Neil [Alden]" Britannica Online.
the Apollo 11 twenty-fifth anniversary page features pictures and sound clips from the first staffed mission to the moon.

atom bomb
also called ATOMIC BOMB, weapon with great explosive power that results from the sudden release of energy upon the splitting or fission of the nuclei of such heavy elements as plutonium or uranium. Detonation of an atomic bomb releases enormous amounts of thermal energy, achieving temperatures of several million degrees in the exploding bomb itself. The heat of the resulting fireball can ignite ground fires that can incinerate an entire small city. Materials vaporized in the fireball condense to fine particles, and this radioactive debris, referred to as fallout, is carried by the winds in the troposphere or stratosphere. The radioactive contaminants can have lethal effects for years after the explosion. The first atomic bomb to be used in warfare was dropped by the United States on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The explosion, which had the force of more than 15,000 tons of TNT, instantly and completely devastated 10 square km (4 square miles) of the heart of this city of 343,000 inhabitants. Of this number, 66,000 were killed immediately and 69,000 were injured; more than 67 percent of the city's structures were destroyed or damaged. -"atomic bomb" Britannica Online.

"absent without official leave"; unauthorized departure from or abandonment of a military duty station.

Axis Powers
the alliance of Germany and Italy formed before and during the Second World War; later the alliance was extended to include Japan.
Joan Baez
American folk singer and political activist who interested young audiences in folk music during the 1960s. She was in the forefront of the 1960s folk song revival, popularizing traditional songs through her performances in coffeehouses, at music festivals and on television. An active participant in the 1960s protest movement, Baez made free concert appearances for civil rights organizations and anti-Vietnam War rallies. In 1964, she refused to pay federal taxes that went toward War expenses and she was jailed twice in 1967. -"Baez, Joan" Britannica Online.

The Beatles
British rock and roll band that started the "British Invasion" in the early 1960s. The band included John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. The Beatles released "The Beatles (white album)" on November 22, 1968.

pants with a marked flare below the knee - very popular in the fashions of the Sixties and early Seventies.

birth control
natural or artificial methods of avoiding pregnancy. The introduction of "the Pill," an oral contraceptive, to U.S. markets in the mid 1960s opened the way for the sexual revolution of the period.

Black Panthers
originally the BLACK PANTHER PARTY FOR SELF-DEFENSE, founded in 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. The party's original purpose was to patrol African American neighborhoods to protect residents from acts of police brutality. The Panthers eventually developed into a revolutionary group that called for the arming of all blacks, the exemption of blacks from the draft and from all sanctions of white America, the release of all blacks from jail, and the payment of compensation to blacks for centuries of exploitation by white Americans. At its peak in the late 1960s, Panther membership exceeded 2,000 and the organization operated chapters in several major cities. -"Black Panther Party." Britannica Online.

black power
a movement of African Americans to unite in actively resisting discrimination, often calling for an independent course of action from movements that included whites. Black power emphasized self-defense tactics, self-determination, political and economic power, and racial pride.

black power salute
a raised tightened fist used by African Americans as a gesture of pride and solidarity.

boot camp
a training facility for new soldiers where they are introduced to military discipline and prepared for the physical and mental rigors of combat.

the collective and organized withholding of patronage, labor, or social involvement to protest practices that are regarded as unfair. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. effectively used boycotts of stores, restaurants, and city services that discriminated against African Americans.

David Brinkley
anchor, with Chet Huntley, of NBC television's "Huntley-Brinkley Report," a major news program of the 1950s and 1960s.

Brown v. Board of Education
on May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously, in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that racial segregation in public schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which says that no state may deny equal protection of the laws to any person within its jurisdiction. The 1954 decision declared that separate educational facilities were inherently unequal. Based on a series of Supreme Court cases argued between 1938 and 1950, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka completed the reversal of an earlier Supreme Court ruling (Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896) that permitted "separate but equal" public school facilities. The 1954 decision was limited to the public schools, but it was believed to imply that racial segregation was not permissible in other public facilities. -"Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka" Britannica Online.

H. Rap Brown
political activist and black power leader, a director of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and member of the Black Panther Party.

McGeorge Bundy
American public official and educator, one of the main architects of U.S. foreign policy in the administrations of presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Under Johnson, Bundy was a forceful advocate of expanding the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War. In February 1965, after visiting South Vietnam, he wrote a crucial memorandum calling for a policy of "sustained reprisal," including air strikes, against North Vietnam if it did not end its guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government. Later, however, after he had left government service, he advised Johnson against further escalation of the War. -"Bundy, McGeorge" Britannica Online.
canned field rations of the U.S. Army.

country in Southeast Asia bordered by Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and the Gulf of Thailand. Although Cambodia had remained neutral in the war between North and South Vietnam, the existence of North Vietnamese staging areas in Cambodia was used to justify a campaign of massive and indiscriminate bombing by the U.S. in 1969 and 1970, followed by invasion by U.S. and South Vietnamese troops. - "Cambodia" Britannica Online.
CIA World Factbook entry for Cambodia

Stokely Carmichael
original name of KWAME TOURE, West-Indian-born civil rights activist, leader of black nationalism in the United States in the 1960s and originator of its rallying slogan, "black power." In 1961 Carmichael was one of several Freedom Riders who traveled through the South challenging segregation laws in interstate transportation. Initially, Carmichael and others associated with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) supported the nonviolent approach to desegregation espoused by Martin Luther King, Jr., but Carmichael was becoming increasingly frustrated, having witnessed beatings and murders of several civil rights activists. In 1966 he became the chairman of SNCC, and during a march in Mississippi he rallied demonstrators in founding the black power movement. Before leaving SNCC in 1968, Carmichael traveled abroad and throughout the U.S., speaking out against political and economic repression and denouncing U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.-"Carmichael, Stokely" Britannica Online.

Chicago Seven
seven activists put on trial in 1969 for activities contributing to the disruption of the 1968 Democratic Convention.

civil rights
the rights to political and social equality regardless of race, gender, or religion. Recent legislation extends the protections of the Civil Rights Act to those discriminated against because of sexual preference, physical disabilities, age, etc.

Civil Rights Act
comprehensive U.S. legislation intended to end discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. Title I of the act guarantees equal voting rights by removing registration requirements and procedures biased against minorities and the underprivileged. Title II prohibits segregation or discrimination in places of public accommodation involved in interstate commerce. Title VII bans discrimination by trade unions, schools, or employers involved in interstate commerce or doing business with the federal government. The latter section also applies to discrimination on the basis of sex and established a government agency, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), to enforce these provisions. The act also calls for the desegregation of public schools (Title IV), broadens the duties of the Civil Rights Commission (Title V), and assures nondiscrimination in the distribution of funds under federally assisted programs (Title VI). The Civil Rights Act was passed with the urging of President Lyndon B. Johnson, who signed the bill into law on July 2, 1964, following one of the longest debates in Senate history. -"Civil Rights Act" Britannica Online.

anti-personnel land mine widely used in the Vietnam War; when discharged, it projects sharp steel fragments (like its namesake, the Scottish sword).

Clean for Gene
a movement of the young supporters of Eugene McCarthy to take on a "clean-cut" look in order to help in his campaign.

Bill Clinton
William Jefferson Clinton, forty-second president of the United States (1993- ). Clinton graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, DC in 1968, and left the U.S. in the fall as a Rhodes Scholar to study in Oxford, England. Clinton was not drafted and did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War.

Cold War
the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies that dominated world affairs from the end of World War II to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Cold War was waged on political, economic, propaganda, and espionage fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons, though the threat of nuclear war was always present and occasionally came near to realization--especially during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

cold water flat
an inexpensive apartment of relatively small size (originally an apartment that only had cold water service).

living arrangements where work and goods are shared within the group. Communes were popular among hippies and other counter-cultural groups.

a theory of revolutionary socialism propounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, advocating a social and economic organization in which workers rather than financial investors (capitalists) control the means of production and distribution of goods. The utopian goal of this theory is a classless society to which all members contribute by their labor. Attempts to implement such a system by the Soviet Union, China, and other countries were also termed communist, although "in none of these countries had a communist society fully been established," ["communism" Britannica Online] and most have resulted in totalitarian states. Fear of the expansion and influence of these states and of communist ideas motivated U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War.

John Connally
governor of Texas from 1963 to 1969. Connally was injured as he rode in the limousine with John F. Kennedy when Kennedy was assassinated. He left the Democratic Party in 1970, served as secretary of the treasury under Richard Nixon, and sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1980.

conscientious objector
a person who refuses to participate in military combat on religious, moral, or ethical grounds. When drafted, conscientious objectors are given non-combatant positions in the service.

the written framework for the government of the United States.

Count Basie
popular big band jazz musician of the 1940s and '50s.

groups of young people that adopt an unconventional lifestyle as an alternative to the perceived hypocrisy and inequity of the dominant cultural norm. In the 1960s the counter-culture was characterized by casual clothing and hair styles, rock and roll music, sexual freedom, experimentation with drugs, and opposition to the Vietnam War.

a demonstration to express opposition to the cause of another demonstration. During the Vietnam War, supporters of the war effort staged counter-demonstrations to oppose antiwar demonstrations.

Cuban Missile Crisis
in October 1962, when President John F. Kennedy learned that Soviet nuclear missiles were being based in Cuba, he ordered a naval quarantine and demanded that the Soviet Union remove all their offensive weapons from the island. This confrontation brought the U.S. and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war. The crisis ended when the Soviets dismantled their missile installations in exchange for a U.S. agreement to discontinue efforts to overthrow Fidel Castro.

Cuban Revolution
Fidel Castro and a small band of revolutionary guerrillas defeated Cuban government troops in 1959. Castro expropriated American businesses and agricultural holdings, and obtained trade agreements and military support from the Soviet Union. The U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1961 and shortly thereafter attempted to overthrow Castro's government by a clandestine invasion at the Bay of Pigs.

a country in central Europe that was dominated by the Soviet Union after World War II. In 1968 liberal reforms implemented by the Czech Communist Party (the Prague Spring) were suppressed by a Soviet invasion. Since the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Czechoslovakia has become two countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Richard Daley
mayor of Chicago from 1955 until his death in 1976; he was reelected every fourth year through 1975. Daley was called "the last of the big-city bosses" because of his tight control of Chicago politics through widespread job patronage. He attained great power in the Democratic Party, but his administration was criticized for its reluctance to check racial segregation in housing and in the public schools and for its measures taken against demonstrators during the Democratic National Convention in 1968. -"Daley, Richard" Britannica Online.
Daley's biography at the Chicago Public Library web site.

city in northern South Vietnam approximately 400 miles north of Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) where there was a heavy concentration of American troops.

a postponement of enlistment date after being drafted. During the Vietnam War, deferments for college students resulted in unequal imposition of the obligation of military service on less privileged young men. The draft law was changed in 1971 to limit student deferments. See Selective Service.

The Dells
1950s doo-wop group.

the reversal of a policy of exclusion of African Americans from institutions and neighborhoods. In the 1960s, as a result of court rulings (Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka) and legislation (Civil Rights Act), desegregation of public schools was undertaken, often by busing students from one racially homogeneous neighborhood to another.

DI, drill instructor
the sergeant who trains new troops at boot camp.

demilitarized zone; a region where military activity is prohibited. The 1954 Geneva Accords ending French occupation of Vietnam established a boundary between North and South Vietnam near the 17th parallel with a demilitarized zone extending for three miles on either side.

domino theory
the belief that events, once set in motion, have an inevitable conclusion, symbolized by the effect of one toppling domino in a row of dominoes. U.S. foreign policy in Southeast Asia in the 1950s and '60s was motivated by the theory that if one country became communist the other countries would inevitably follow in quick succession.

an a cappella singing style popularized in the 1950s.

The Doors
psychedelic rock and roll band of the 1960s fronted by Jim Morrison and very popular among American GIs in Vietnam.

a call to required military service. See Selective Service.

Draft Board
committee that selects and classifies young men for required military service. See Selective Service.

draft dodging
evading the draft by moving to another country or concealing one's identity.

duck and cover
a drill practiced in schools in the 1950s and '60s, administered under the assumption that the children would be protected from a nuclear blast if they ducked under a desk and covered their heads.

John Foster Dulles
U.S. secretary of state (1953-59) under President Dwight D. Eisenhower. He was the architect of many major elements of U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War with the Soviet Union after World War II. -"Dulles, John F(oster)" Britannica Online.

Bob Dylan
singer/songwriter who spoke out for social justice and opposed the U.S. presence in Vietnam. Famous for protest songs such as The Times they are A-Changin' (1964), Dylan released John Wesley Harding on the eve of 1968, and Nashville Skyline in 1969.

Ed Sullivan Show
television variety show during the 1950s and 1960s. Appearance on the "Ed Sullivan Show" provided national exposure and recognition to musicians like Elvis Presley and the Beatles.

Dwight David Eisenhower
thirty-fourth president of the United States (1953-61) and former general and Commander of the Allied Armies in World War II.

enroll in the military.

enlisted man
a soldier or sailor below the rank of officer.

release from the obligation of military service. Before 1971, exemptions (or deferments) were granted to clergy, people in critical occupations (teachers, doctors, scientists), and people with certain medical conditions. See Selective Service.
fallout shelter
an underground living space designed to protect the occupants from the effects of a nuclear explosion.

Federal Bureau of Investigation; U.S. federal law enforcement department concentrating mostly on domestic investigation.

advocacy of women's rights and equality.

The Flamingos
popular doo-wop group from the 1950s and 1960s.

flower children
a term for hippies that emphasizes romantic, utopian, antiwar aspects of their counter-culture.

Jane Fonda
American motion-picture actress who was also noted for her political activism. In the 1970s and '80s Fonda was active on behalf of left-wing political causes. She was an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War who journeyed to Hanoi in 1972 to denounce the U.S. bombing campaigns there. -"Fonda, Jane" Britannica Online

Gerald Ford
thirty-eighth president of the United States. President Ford assumed office in 1974 after the resignation of Richard M. Nixon. He established a program to provide clemency to Vietnam War draft resisters.
The Ford Presidential Library
President Ford's official White House biography

assassination of a commanding officer by soldiers.

free love
sexual relations without any commitments by either partner.

Freedom of Information Act
a law that gives the public the right to obtain more information from agencies of the federal government.
The ACLU's FOIA guide

Friends of SNCC
white supporters of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee.
Geiger counter
instrument for measuring the intensity of radiation.

generation gap
a difference of outlook or lifestyle between people of different generations.

GI Bill
bill providing benefits to U.S. military veterans, including housing loans, education grants, and health care, among others.

John Glenn
the first U.S. astronaut to orbit the Earth. On February 20, 1962, Glenn's space capsule, "Friendship 7," was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Glenn retired from the space program and the Marine Corps in 1964 to enter private business and to pursue his interest in politics. He was elected U.S. senator from Ohio in 1974 and was reelected in 1980. In October 1998, at the age of 77, Glenn returned to space on a nine-day shuttle mission with six other crew members. -"Glenn, John H(erschel), Jr." Britannica Online.

Barry Goldwater
U.S. senator from Arizona (1953-64, 1969-87) and Republican presidential candidate in 1964 opposing the incumbent president, Lyndon B. Johnson. National prosperity worked in Johnson's favor, and Goldwater was considered an extreme anticommunist who might carry the country into war with the Soviet Union. Goldwater was decisively defeated in that election. In 1968 Goldwater was reelected as senator from Arizona and held that office until he retired in 1987. He led the delegation of senior Republican politicians who on August 7, 1974, persuaded President Richard M. Nixon to resign from office. -"Goldwater, Barry M." Britannica Online.

Grant Park
Chicago park where the protests against the Democratic Convention of 1968 started.

Great Society
President Lyndon Johnson's sweeping program of domestic reform in health care, education, civil rights, and housing, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the establishment of Medicare, a health care plan for the elderly.

Gulf of Tonkin
gulf off the coast of northern Vietnam that connects to the South China Sea. On August 5, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson brought a resolution before Congress requesting authorization to use military force in reaction to two allegedly unprovoked attacks by North Vietnamese on two boats of U.S. Seventh Fleet in the Gulf of Tonkin on August 2 and 4. Its stated purpose was to approve and support the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, in taking all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression. It also declared that peace in Southeast Asia was vital to American interests and to world peace. The resolution served as the principal constitutional authorization for the subsequent escalation of the United States' military involvement in the Vietnam War. Several years later, as the American public became increasingly disillusioned with the Vietnam War, many congressmen came to see the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution as having given the president a blanket power to wage war, and the resolution was repealed in 1970. -"Gulf of Tonkin Resolution" Britannica Online.

capital of North Vietnam and headquarters for the North Vietnam Army during the Vietnam War.

Hanoi Hilton
term used by American soldiers and journalists for the prison in Hanoi where prisoners of war were kept.

Jimi Hendrix
byname of JAMES MARSHALL HENDRIX (b. November 27, 1942, Seattle, Washington--d. September 18, 1970, London, England), American blues and rock guitarist known for his innovative playing (and occasional cremation) of the electric guitar. Hendrix was a symbol of the 1960s youth counter-culture. -Hendrix, Jimi Britannica Online.

a young person who drops out of school or conventional work to join the counter-culture. In the 1960s, hippie styles included long hair, beads, and psychedelic rock music.

a member of a mountain-dwelling people inhabiting southeastern China and the northern parts of Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. The Hmong people of Laos fought for the CIA and the U.S. military in the secret war against Laotian and North Vietnamese communists in the 1960s. They suffered serious losses in combat and in reprisals and migrations that followed the U.S. withdrawal from Southeast Asia. Thousands of Hmong have now settled in the U.S.
WWW Hmong Homepage

Ho Chi Minh
president of North Vietnam from 1945 to 1969. As the leader of the Vietnamese nationalist movement for nearly three decades, Ho was one of the prime movers of the post-World War II anticolonial movement in Asia and one of the most influential communist leaders of the twentieth century. - Ho Chi Minh Britannica Online.

Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)
formerly (until 1976) SAIGON, Vietnamese THANH PHO HO CHI MINH, largest city in Vietnam; it was the former capital of the French protectorate of Cochinchina (1862-1954) and of South Vietnam (1954-75). The city lies along the Saigon River (Song Sai Gon) to the north of the Mekong River delta, about 50 miles (80 km) from the South China Sea. The commercial center of Cho Lon lies immediately west of Ho Chi Minh City. During the Second Indochina War, or Vietnam War, of the 1960s and early '70s, Saigon was the headquarters of U.S. military operations. Parts of the city were destroyed by fighting in 1968. On April 30, 1975, North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon, and the city was subsequently renamed Ho Chi Minh City. Ho Chi Minh City retains the look of a European city, with its many Western-style buildings dating from the period of French colonial rule. Most of the brothels and restaurants that thrived in Saigon during the Vietnam War have closed their doors. -"Ho Chi Minh City" Britannica Online.

Ho Chi Minh Trail
elaborate system of mountain and jungle paths and trails used by North Vietnam to infiltrate troops and supplies into South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos during the Vietnam War. The trail was put into operation beginning in 1959, after the North Vietnamese leadership decided to use revolutionary warfare to reunify South with North Vietnam. Traffic on the trail was little affected by repeated American B-52 bombing raids. The trail was maintained and improved and by the late 1960s could accommodate heavy trucks in some sections and was supplying the needs of several hundred thousand regular North Vietnamese troops active in South Vietnam. The Ho Chi Minh Trail was the major supply route for the North Vietnamese forces that successfully invaded and overran South Vietnam in 1975. -"Ho Chi Minh Trail" Britannica Online.

Abbie Hoffman
American political activist and founder of the Youth International Party (Yippies). Hoffman was active in the American civil rights movement before turning his energies to organizing the Yippies (1968), who were dedicated to protesting the Vietnam War and the American economic and political system. He gained widespread media attention for his exploits, most notably for his courtroom antics as a defendant in the so-called Chicago Seven trial (1969), in which Hoffman was convicted of crossing state lines with intent to riot at the Democratic Party's national convention in Chicago in 1968; the conviction was later overturned. After he was arrested on charges of selling cocaine (1973), Hoffman went underground, underwent plastic surgery, assumed the alias Barry Freed, and worked as an environmental activist in New York state. He resurfaced in 1980 and served a year in prison before resuming his environmental efforts. Hoffman died in 1989. -"Abbie Hoffman" Britannica Online.

the mass slaughter of 6 million European civilians, especially Jews, as part of a systematic "final solution" by the Nazis during World War II.

honorable discharge
a release from military duty with good standing.

dwelling constructed primarily for short-term occupancy, made from canvas, used to house soldiers in the fields of Vietnam.

Hubert Humphrey
thirty-eighth vice president of the United States (1965-1969, under President Lyndon Johnson). Humphrey's political career was established during his service as senator from Minnesota (1949-1965 and 1971-1978). He was an influential liberal leader who built his political base on a Democrat-Farmer-Labor coalition reminiscent of the Populist movement. Following President Johnson's withdrawal from active politics in 1968, Humphrey was nominated as the Democratic presidential candidate. But, with his party divided over the Vietnam War, he was narrowly defeated by Republican Richard M. Nixon. - "Humphrey, Hubert H[oratio]" Britannica Online

Chet Huntley
co-host, with David Brinkley, of NBC television's "Huntley-Brinkley Report," a major news program of the 1950s and 1960s.

Lyndon B. Johnson
thirty-sixth president of the United States. Lyndon Baines Johnson took office upon JFK's assassination in 1963, and won election in 1964. He implemented major programs of domestic social reform (the Great Society), but faced increasing opposition from the American left because of continued U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1968 he announced that he would not seek re-election.
The LBJ presidential library
The official White House biography of LBJ
John F. Kennedy
thirty-fifth president of the United States (1961-63). Kennedy was a WWII hero, senator from Massachusetts, and the youngest person ever elected president. He was assassinated in Dallas in 1963. JFK's youth and idealistic pronouncements created an optimistic mood of liberalism throughout the country and the world, despite the continuation and escalation of traditional Cold War policies against countries like Cuba and Vietnam.
The Kennedy Presidential Library
The official White House biography of JFK

Edward Kennedy
U.S. senator from Massachusetts, first elected in 1962. He is the last surviving brother of John F. Kennedy. Kennedy has long been a prominent figure in the Democratic Party and in liberal politics, serving as a prominent spokesman for social reform legislation.-"Kennedy, Edward M" Britannica Online.

Robert F. Kennedy
U.S. attorney general and adviser during the administration of his brother, President John F. Kennedy; later U.S. senator from New York. RFK was assassinated in 1968 while campaigning for the presidential nomination. - "Kennedy, Robert F." Britannica Online

Kent State University
a public, coeducational university in Kent, Ohio. In May 1970, the Ohio National Guard fired upon students in reaction to campus protests against the war in Vietnam. Four students were killed, sparking outrage and demonstrations at many American universities. -"Kent State University" Britannica Online.

Khe Sanh
site of a major standoff between U.S. Marines and North Vietnamese soldiers. See also Vietnam.

Martin Luther King, Jr.
eloquent African American Baptist minister who led the civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. His leadership was fundamental to that movement's success in ending the legal segregation of African Americans in the South and other portions of the U.S. Dr. King rose to national prominence through the organization of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), promoting nonviolent tactics such as the massive March on Washington (1963) to achieve civil rights. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1964. - "King, Martin Luther, Jr." Britannica Online

Henry Kissinger
U.S. political scientist. As advisor for national security affairs and secretary of state, Kissinger was a major influence in the shaping of foreign policy from 1969 to 1976 under Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. Although he originally advocated a hardline policy in Vietnam and helped engineer the U.S. bombing of Cambodia (1969-70), in 1972 Kissinger negotiated (at the Paris Peace Talks) a cease-fire agreement that provided for the withdrawal of U.S. troops and outlined the machinery for a peace settlement between the two Vietnams. For this apparent resolution, Kissinger shared the 1973 Nobel Prize with the North Vietnamese negotiator, Le Duc Tho. -"Kissinger, Henry A(lfred)" Britannica Online.
Life Magazine
popular American periodical that features photo-journalism.

LSD, "acid"
lysergic acid diethylamide, a potent synthetic hallucinogenic drug that produces profoundly altered states of consciousness. In the 1960s LSD was proposed for use in the treatment of neuroses by the psychologist Timothy Leary, though no claims of its psychotherapeutic effectiveness have yet been substantiated. In the United States, manufacture, possession, sale, transfer, and use of LSD came under the restrictions of the Drug Abuse Control Amendment of 1965. -"LSD" Britannica Online.
a .223 caliber (5.56 mm.) gas-operated magazine-fed rifle for semiautomatic or automatic operation used by U.S.troops since the mid-1960s.

Michael Mansfield
Democratic Party majority leader in the U.S. Senate (1961-77) and U.S. ambassador to Japan from 1977 to 1988. In 1952 Mansfield won a seat in the Senate, despite the accusation of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy that he was "soft on communism." Mansfield succeeded Lyndon Johnson as Senate majority leader when Johnson became vice president in 1961. Throughout the 1960s Mansfield became increasingly vocal in his criticism of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1971 he sponsored a bill calling for a cease-fire and phased withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam. -"Mansfield, Michael J(oseph)" Britannica Online.

an illegal drug, made from dried hemp and usually ingested by smoking. Marijuana, also called "pot" or "grass," was popular in the counter-culture and among GIs in Vietnam.

the political and economic theories of Karl Marx, predicting the revolutionary overthrow of capitalism by the proletariat and the eventual attainment of a classless communist society.

Eugene McCarthy
U.S. senator from Minnesota whose entry into the 1968 race for the Democratic presidential nomination ultimately led President Lyndon B. Johnson to drop his bid for reelection. Although he had supported the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964 (which gave the president broad powers to wage the Vietnam War), by 1967 McCarthy had become an outspoken critic of the war. After McCarthy captured twenty of the twenty-four delegates of the March 1968 New Hampshire primary, Johnson made the dramatic announcement of his withdrawal from the race. Following the assassination of Robert F.Kennedy, McCarthy lost the nomination at the convention in Chicago to Vice President Hubert Humphrey. -"McCarthy, Eugene" Britannica Online

George McGovern
U.S. senator from South Dakota who was an unsuccessful reformist Democratic candidate for the presidency in 1972. He campaigned on a platform advocating an immediate end to the Vietnam War and liberal reforms at home. As chairman of a Commission on Party Structure and Delegate Selection prior to the Democratic National Convention in 1972, McGovern helped enact party reforms that gave increased representation to minority groups at the convention. However, McGovern was unable to unify the party sufficiently to offer an effective challenge to the incumbent Republican president, Richard M. Nixon, who defeated him by an overwhelming margin. -"McGovern, George" Britannica Online.

Robert McNamara
U.S. secretary of defense from 1961 to 1968 who revamped Pentagon operations and who played a major role in the nation's military involvement in Vietnam. On visits to South Vietnam in 1962, 1964, and 1966, the secretary publicly expressed optimism that the National Liberation Front and its North Vietnamese allies would soon abandon their attempt to overthrow the U.S.-backed Saigon regime. He became the government's chief spokesman for the day-to-day operations of the war and acted as President Lyndon B. Johnson's principal deputy in the war's prosecution. By 1966, however, McNamara had begun to question the wisdom of U.S. military involvement in Vietnam, and by 1967 he was openly seeking a way to launch peace negotiations. He initiated a full-scale investigation of the American commitment to Vietnam (later published as the Pentagon Papers), came out in opposition to continued bombing of North Vietnam (for which he lost influence in the Johnson administration), and in February 1968 left the Pentagon to become president of the World Bank. "McNamara, Robert S(trange)" Britannica Online.

mess hall
dining room for soldiers in camps or at military bases.

missing in action; a soldier reported to be missing in action--not among those known to be dead or prisoners of war.

Russian fighter jet.

National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam; organization that brought together a broad range of antiwar groups and staged marches and demonstrations in Washington, DC and on college campuses, as well as the rally in Chicago during the Democratic national convention in August 1968.

Monroe Doctrine
declaration (in 1823) by President James Monroe that further European colonization in the Western Hemisphere would be taken as a hostile act against the United States. In the twentieth century, an interpretation of the Doctrine has been used to justify U.S. interference in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. "Monroe Doctrine" Britannica Online.

term for the automobile-manufacturing city of Detroit, Michigan ("motor town"). The Motown Record Corp., founded in 1959 by Berry Gordy, Jr., was the first and most successful African American-owned music company. The distinctive sound and style of Motown musicians characterized much popular music of the 1960s. -"Motown" Britannica Online.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; an interracial organization created to work for the abolition of segregation and discrimination in housing, education, employment, voting, and transportation; to oppose racism; and to ensure African Americans their constitutional rights. It was the NAACP's legal counsel that carried to the Supreme Court the case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that resulted in the landmark 1954 school desegregation decision. -"National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" Britannica Online.
The NAACP's web page

jellied gasoline used extensively in incendiary bombs during the Vietnam War.

Narragansett Indians
tribe of Native Americans living in the area of Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

New Left
a political movement originating especially among students in the 1960s, that favored confrontational tactics and often broke with older leftist ideologies. Concerned especially with antiwar, antinuclear, feminist, and environmental issues.

New Republic
weekly journal of opinion that was one of the most influential liberal magazines in the United States from its founding in 1914. The journal reflected the progressive movement and sought reforms in American society. The New Republic adhered to its liberal orientation from the 1950s through the '70s, but in the 1980s the magazine began displaying an array of editorial opinion and commentary that reflected the resurgence of conservatism in American political thought. The New Republic has remained an influential journal of political commentary and analysis. -"New Republic, The" Britannica Online.

weekly American magazine concerned primarily with national issues.

Huey Newton
American political activist, cofounder (with Bobby Seale) of the Black Panthers in Oakland, California in 1966. -"Newton, Huey P." Britannica Online.

Richard M. Nixon
(1913-1994) thirty-seventh president of the United States. Nixon rose to prominence in Congress in the 1940s through his participation in the House Un-American Activities Committee investigating suspected communists in government (Red Scare). He served two terms as vice president under Dwight Eisenhower, but was defeated in the 1960 presidential election by John F. Kennedy. Nixon was elected president in 1968 and embarked on a "Vietnamization" policy which was supposed to reduce the U.S. combat role in Vietnam by providing military and economic support to South Vietnamese troops and escalating U.S. air attacks against North Vietnam. He then ordered secret bombing campaigns against North Vietnamese supply centers in the neutral nations of Laos and Cambodia. In 1973, Nixon's secretary of state Henry Kissinger negotiated an accord with North Vietnam ending U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia.
Nixon's other major foreign policy accomplishment was to reduce tensions with China and the Soviet Union. He resigned in 1974 when faced with almost certain impeachment for covering up his administration's involvement in the break-in at the Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate during the 1972 election campaign.
The Nixon Presidential library
Nixon's White House biography

National Organization for Women; American activist organization (founded 1966) that promotes equal rights for women. The National Organization for Women was established to actively challenge sex discrimination in all areas of American society, particularly in employment. Among the issues that NOW has addressed by means of lobbying and litigation are child care, pregnancy leave, abortion rights and pension rights. Its major concern during the 1970s was passage of a national equal rights amendment to the Constitution; the amendment failed to gain ratification in 1982. NOW also campaigned for such issues as passage of state equal rights amendments and comparable-worth legislation (equal pay for work of comparable value) and met with greater success on the state level. -"National Organization for Women" Britannica Online.

Paris Peace Talks
secret talks held in October 1972 between Henry Kissinger and North Vietnam's Le Duc Tho resulting in an agreement on a cease-fire, the release of prisoners of war, evacuation of remaining U.S. forces within 60 days, and political negotiations among all Vietnamese parties. The cease-fire went into effect on January 23, 1973, and the last American soldiers departed on March 9. - "20th-Century International Relations: Total Cold War and the diffusion: Nixon, Kissinger, and the Detente Experiment: End of the Vietnam War" Britannica Online.

Rosa Parks
African American civil rights hero whose refusal to give up her seat on a public bus to a white man precipitated the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott, recognized as the spark that ignited the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. -"Parks, Rosa" Britannica Online.

John O. Pastore
influential U.S. senator from Rhode Island, 1950-1976.

Peace Corps
U.S. government agency of volunteers, created by the Peace Corps Act of 1961. It was initiated by President John F. Kennedy, and its first director was Kennedy's brother-in-law R. Sargent Shriver. The purpose of the Peace Corps is to assist other countries in their development efforts by providing skilled workers in the fields of education, agriculture, health, trade, technology, and community development. The Peace Corps grew from 900 volunteers serving 16 countries in 1961 to a peak of 15,556 volunteers serving 52 countries in 1966. "Peace Corps" Britannica Online.

official headquarters of the United States military.

Pentagon Papers
a classified report on the U.S. role in Vietnam commissioned in 1967 by secretary of defense Robert McNamara. The Pentagon Papers were made available to newspapers by Daniel Ellsberg in 1971 and revealed the long history of covert U.S. military and political involvement in Vietnamese affairs. President Nixon reacted to those revelations by authorizing unlawful efforts to discredit Ellsberg that came to light during the Watergate scandal. - "Pentagon Papers" Britannica Online

military rank of private first-class.

The Pill
a birth control pill; any of several oral contraceptives for women introduced in the United States in the mid 1960s.

prisoner of war; a person captured or interned by a belligerent power during war. The Geneva Convention of 1949 established standards for the protection and humane treatment of prisoners of war and broadened the term to include guerrillas or civilians who openly take up arms against an enemy, and noncombatants, such as war correspondents, who accompany armed forces without actually being members. -"prisoner of war" Britannica Online

Elvis Presley
rock and roll singer whose enormous success changed the shape of American popular culture. Presley's intensely charismatic personal style--the sexy hip shaking that earned him the nickname "Elvis the Pelvis," the ducktail haircut, and the characteristic sneer combined with an aura of vulnerability--excited young fans, especially females, to wild adulation. Because of the sexual suggestiveness of his gyrations, he was originally shown on television only from the waist up. Presley's popularity extended to country, pop, and rhythm and blues audiences. He released 14 consecutive million-selling records before being drafted into the U.S. Army in 1958. Presley resumed his recording and acting career after being discharged in 1960. Though he remained popular and hugely successful financially, he suffered a personal decline, battling public pressures, middle-age weight gain, and dependence on drugs. Hundreds of thousands of fans mourned Presley outside the gates of his estate, Graceland, after his sudden death in 1977. -"Presley, Elvis" Britannica Online.
U.S. Marine Corps training facility in Quantico, Virginia.

Quonset hut
a prefabricated shelter set on a foundation of bolted steel trusses and built of a semicircular arching roof of corrugated metal insulated with wood fiber.
rest and relaxation, military term for leave away from a war zone.

promoting extreme change in existing views, habits, conditions, or institutions; an individual who favors such changes.

Red Cross
international organization bringing relief to victims of war and natural disater.

Red Scare
a political tactic of the Cold War era in which excessive fear of communism was fed by unsupported allegations by Senator Joseph McCarthy, Richard Nixon, and others that ruined the lives, careers, or reputations of thousands of Americans in government, the military, the arts, and education. -"The United States of America: History: The United States Since 1945: The Peak Cold War Years, 1945-60: The Red Scare" Britannica Online

Reserve Officers Training Corps; programs conducted by the U.S. armed services on high school and college campuses to recruit and train students to become officers in the military.
surface to air missile; an anti-aircraft weapon used to destroy enemy aircraft from the ground.

Students for a Democratic Society; American student organization that flourished in the mid-to-late 1960s and was known for its activism against the Vietnam War. Initially, SDS chapters throughout the nation were involved in the Civil Rights Movement. SDS organized a national march on Washington D.C. in April 1965, and from about that period SDS grew increasingly militant, especially about issues relating to the war, such as the drafting of students. -"Students for a Democratic Society" Britannica Online.

the naval construction battalions that speedily built docks, housing, and airstrips in combat zones during World War II and the Vietnam War.

Bobby Seale
(b. Oct. 22, 1936, Dallas, Texas) African American political activist, Seale, along with Huey Newton, founded the Black Panther Party and was its national chairman. Seale was one of a generation of American radicals who broke away from the traditionally nonviolent Civil Rights Movement to preach a doctrine of militant black empowerment. -"Seale, Bobby" Britannica Online.
Bobby Seale's Home Page

Sea Air and Land teams, the US naval special forces.

the separation or isolation of a race, class, or ethnic group by enforced or voluntary residence in a restricted area, by barriers to social intercourse, by separate educational facilities, or by other discriminatory means. In the U.S., the Civil Rights Act of 1964 addresses both de jure segregation (segregation imposed by law, such as the 'Jim Crow' legislation in the South) and de facto segregation (segregation condoned by racist practices of exclusion in housing and education).

Selective Service
the U.S. military draft. Until the later years of the Vietnam War, young men between the ages of 18 and 26 without a deferment or professional or medical exemption from the draft were eligible to be called into military service at any time. A lottery system was introduced in 1969 and other changes to the Selective Service System were made in 1971 that effectively narrowed the period of liability to the draft, limited deferments, and made the draft more equitable.

Alan Shepard
first U.S. astronaut to travel in space. On May 5, 1961, he made a 15-minute suborbital flight in Freedom 7, which reached an altitude of 115 miles (185 km). The flight came 23 days after Major Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union became the first man to orbit the Earth. -"Shepard, Alan" Britannica Online.

tactic of nonviolent civil disobedience. The demonstrators enter a business or a public place and remain seated until forcibly evicted or until their grievances are answered. Attempts to terminate the essentially passive sit-in are sometimes brutal, thus calling attention to the problem and gaining support for the demonstrators among moderates and noninvolved individuals. The sit-in was adopted as a major tactic in the Civil Rights Movement; the first prominent sit-in occurred at a Greensboro (North Carolina) lunch counter in 1960. Student activists adopted the tactic later in the decade in demonstrations against the Vietnam War. -"sit-in"Britannica Online.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; a civil rights group founded in 1960 that engaged in sit-ins and other nonviolent methods to oppose segregation. In 1966, SNCC adopted a policy of African American self-determination by advocating exclusion of whites from active roles in the organization.

any of various economic and political theories advocating collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods; a system of society or group living in which there is no private property; a system or condition of society in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state.
a road construction technique which involves spreading tar over layers of crushed stone and then rolling the surface smooth.

an informal lecture or discussion among college students and faculty, held with the aim of raising awareness and understanding of political or social issues.

Tet Offensive
on January 30, 1968, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong (National Liberation Front, NLF) launched a massive surprise offensive during the Tet (lunar new year) festival. Fighting was especially fierce in Saigon and Hué. Although the general uprising that the NLF expected did not materialize, the offensive had an important strategic effect because it convinced a number of Americans that, contrary to their government's claims, the insurgency in South Vietnam could not be crushed and the war would continue for years to come. - "Vietnam War" Britannica Online

Norman Thomas
pacifist and social reformer who ran for president of the U.S. on the Socialist Party ticket in six successive elections, beginning in 1928.

Tiananmen Square
a huge public square in Beijing, China, site of a series of student-led prodemocracy demonstrations in 1989. The initially peaceful memorial demonstrations were suppressed by the Chinese army -- hundreds of demonstrators were killed, thousands injured. Following the violence, the government conducted widespread arrests, summary trials, and executions of students and workers.

a method of producing colorful swirled patterns on cloth by tying it with string, rubberbands, etc. to shield parts of the fabric from the dye. Tie-dyed clothing was popular with the counter-culture because it was home-made and individualistic, rather than commercial and mass-produced.
Urban League
originally NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE, American voluntary service agency tracing its origin to 1911 and dedicated to eliminating racial segregation and discrimination. The primary task of helping migrants gradually evolved over the years into larger concerns. The League emerged as one of the strongest forces in the civil rights struggle. "National Urban League" Britannica Online.

Viet Cong
term (used by the South Vietnamese government and U.S. military and journalists) for South Vietnamese fighters who were trained and armed in North Vietnam to use guerrilla tactics against the South Vietnamese army (Army of the Republic of Vietnam, ARVN) and the U.S. military. The political organization comprising the Viet Cong and South Vietnamese civilians who supported the unification of Vietnam was the National Liberation Front (NLF).

country in Southeast Asia, situated along the eastern coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Vietnam is bordered by China, Laos, Cambodia, and the Gulf of Tonkin and the South China Sea. French colonial control was resisted by nationalists and communists led by Ho Chi Minh, who defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Vietnam was divided at the 17th parallel into a northern portion in which nationalists and communists had a strong base of popular support and a southern portion backed by the U.S. The U.S. engaged in a long and costly war with the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong, justified on the grounds that all of East Asia would become communist if Vietnam became communist (Domino Theory). Prosecution of the Vietnam War caused serious political division and social unrest in the U.S., and U.S. troops were finally withdrawn in March 1973. In 1975 Vietnam was re-unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The U.S. maintained a trade embargo against Vietnam until 1994. In 1995 trade and diplomatic relations with Vietnam were normalized.
CIA World Factbook Entry on Vietnam (with map)

George C. Wallace
governor of Alabama from 1962-1966, 1970-1978, and 1982-1986. George Wallace became a nationwide symbol of intransigence toward racial integration in schools when he stood in the schoolhouse door at the University of Alabama in an attempt to prevent African American students from enrolling (1963). In the 1980s, Wallace renounced his segregationist ideology and won election as governor with support from African American voters. -"Wallace, George C." Britannica Online.

Warren Commission
formally PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ASSASSINATION OF PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY, commission appointed by U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson on November 29, 1963, to investigate the circumstances surrounding the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy, in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, and the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin, two days later. The chairman of the commission was the chief justice of the United States, Earl Warren. After months of investigation the commission reported that it had found no evidence that either Oswald or Jack Ruby, a Dallas nightclub operator charged with Oswald's murder, was part of any conspiracy, foreign or domestic, to assassinate President Kennedy. This conclusion of the commission was later questioned in a number of books and articles and in a special congressional committee report in 1979.-"Warren Commission" Britannica Online.

a crucial period of transition.

a predominantly African American district of Los Angeles, California. In August 1965 Watts erupted in a riot that lasted several days. Homes and businesses were burned, shops were looted, and 35 people were killed. The Watts riot was the first of a series of riots in a number of US cities in the next two years, stemming from anger and hopelessness about conditions and prospects for blacks in America.

the Woodstock Art and Music Fair was a rock festival held near Bethel, New York, on August 15-16, 1969. About 450,000 rock fans camped and cooperated in a spontaneous community for two days of non-stop music by the most popular musicians of the '60s. -"Woodstock" Britannica Online
Malcolm X
original name MALCOLM LITTLE, Muslim name EL-HAJJ MALIK EL-SHABAZZ (b. May 19, 1925, Omaha, Nebraska--d. February 21, 1965, New York, N.Y.), African American leader who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the early 1960s. In 1946, while in prison for burglary, he was converted to the Black Muslim faith (Nation of Islam); this sect professed the superiority of people of color and the inherent evil of whites. Released from prison in 1952, he embraced the rigorous asceticism of the Nation of Islam, headquartered in Chicago. He changed his last name to "X," a custom among Nation of Islam followers who rejected family names that originated with white slaveholders. Malcolm X derided the Civil Rights Movement and rejected both integration and racial equality, calling instead for African American separatism, black pride and self-reliance. Because he advocated the use of violence (for self-protection) and appeared to many to be a fanatic, his leadership was rejected by most civil rights leaders, who emphasized nonviolent resistance to racial injustice. In March 1964 Malcolm X left the Nation of Islam and announced the formation of his own religious organization. As a result of a pilgrimage he took to Mecca in April 1964, he modified his views of black separatism, declaring that he no longer believed whites to be innately evil and acknowledging his vision of the possibility of world brotherhood. Growing hostility between Malcolm's followers and the rival Black Muslims manifested itself in violence and threats against his life. He was shot to death at a rally of his followers in a Harlem ballroom. Three Black Muslims were convicted of the murder. -"Malcolm X" Britannica Online.
Young Communist
in Russian, "Komsomolskaya Pravda," "Young Communist League Truth," daily newspaper published in Moscow that was the official voice of the Central Council of the Komsomol, or Communist youth league for young people aged 14 to 28. Founded in 1925, Komsomolskaya Pravda historically had its main offices in Moscow, with those of Pravda, the Communist Party daily newspaper, but with its own editorial staff. -"Komsomolskaya Pravda" Britannica Online.
brand name of a type of cigarette lighter carried by many U.S. GIs in Vietnam, frequently engraved.